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2010年考研英语翻译特别集训系列(二)

http://www.dayoo.com http://www.dayoo.com 2009-09-14 19:23 来源: 文都教育 发表评论 (0)

  【译文】他马马虎虎地看了看那张便条就走了。

  【例6】 Don’t scamp your work because you are pressed for time. (否定转移)

  【译文】不要因为时间紧张就敷衍塞责。

  【分析】否定转移是指形式上看起来是否定某个词语或主句,但实际上是否定另外的词语或从句。最常见的是“主语 + don’t think + 从句 (否定从句)”,“not…because / because of…(否定because / because of )”等。对于否定转移,翻译时要把否定转回原位。本句中,not否定的是because从句,所以翻译时要把not还原到because从句上。

  【例7】 As they expected to be away from the steamer only a few hours, they took enough food for one meal only and no extra clothing beyond what they stood up in. (排除否定)

  【译文】因为他们估计离开轮船只有几个小时,所以只带了一顿饭的食物和身上穿的衣服/所以只带了一顿饭的食物,除了身上穿的之外,没有多带衣服。

  【分析】本句是排除否定。所谓排除否定,就是指该句中有一部分是否定,有一部分是肯定。通常地,会用一些介词或连词等来排除掉其所引导或连接的部分。常见的引导词有:beyond (除了)、other than(除了)、except (除了)、nothing more than (仅仅)等。该句中是用beyond引导的排除否定,排除掉其后的what they stood up in;由于本句前面有no,也可以看成是no和beyond的双重否定表肯定。

  除了上述一些有规律的用法之外,英语中还有些表示否定的固定词语、结构,列举如下:

  (1)for all…不管。

  【例句】You may leave at once for all I care。

  【译文】你尽可离开,我才不管呢。

  (2)it be + adj. + n. + that + 否定句,表示肯定。

  【例1】It is a long lane that has no end。

  【译文】路必有弯。/ 凡事总有变化,不会永远不变。

  【例2】It is a good workman that never blunders。

  【译文】智者千虑,必有一失。

  (3)not more than客观地表示“不超过”、“至多”。

  【例句】I have not more than twenty Yuan in my purse。

  【译文】我钱包里的钱不超过20元。

  no more than:主观地表示数量之少,常译成“仅仅”、“只不过”。

  【例句】I have no more than twenty Yuan in my purse。

  【译文】我钱包里仅仅有20元钱。

  (4)not…nearly根本不,远远不。

  【例句】The food supply will not increase nearly enough to match population growth。

  【译文】粮食供应量的增长将远远跟不上人口的增长。

  六、比较(略)

  七、被动(略)

  八、分词(略)

  九、代词(略)

  十、插入语(略)

  十一、强调结构(略)

  二、考研翻译历年真题精析(2009)

  研究考研翻译历年真题对应用和巩固翻译技巧和方法,把握考研翻译的命题方向和提高翻译成绩,有着其他方式无可替代的重要作用。从研究和方便读者的角度出发,本章对考研翻译句子的解析采取下列格式:

  1. 对原句的翻译过程做出一些简化,主要按照三部分展开:句子结构分析、词语用法解释、汉语方式表达。

  2. 句子结构分析用各种具体符号标示,使读者一目了然。具体符号及表示内容如下: 句子间的逻辑层次关系用/来表示,/为第一层,//为第二层,以此类推;主语:用下划线表示;谓语:用阴影部分表示;宾语:用波浪线表示;插入语:用双下线表示;连接词:用全框来表示;修饰成分用来表示,有必要时再做具体解释。例如:

  It may be said  //that  the measure of the worth of any social institution is its effect in enlarging and improving experience; / but this effect is not a part of its original motive。

  2009年英译汉试题及解析

  There is a marked difference between the education which every one gets from living with others, and the deliberate educating of the young. In the former case the education is incidental; it is natural and important, but it is not the express reason of the association。(46)It may be said that the measure of the worth of any social institution is its effect in enlarging and improving experience; but this effect is not a part of its original motive. Religious associations began, for example, in the desire to secure the favor of overruling powers and to ward off evil influences; family life in the desire to gratify appetites and secure family perpetuity; systematic labor, for the most part, because of enslavement to others, etc. (47)Only gradually was the by-product of the institution noted, and only more gradually still was this effect considered as a directive factor in the conduct of the institution. Even today, in our industrial life, apart from certain values of industriousness and thrift, the intellectual and emotional reaction of the forms of human association under which the world’s work is carried on receives little attention as compared with physical output。

  But in dealing with the young, the fact of association itself as an immediate human fact, gains in importance. (48)While it is easy to ignore in our contact with them the effect of our acts upon their disposition, it is not so easy as in dealing with adults. The need of training is too evident; the pressure to accomplish a change in their attitude and habits is too urgent to leave these consequences wholly out of account. (49)Since our chief business with them is to enable them to share in a common life we cannot help considering whether or no we are forming the powers which will secure this ability. If humanity has made some headway in realizing that the ultimate value of every institution is its distinctively human effect we may well believe that this lesson has been learned largely through dealings with the young。

  (50)We are thus led to distinguish, within the broad educational process which we have been so far considering, a more formal kind of education—that of direct tuition or schooling. In undeveloped social groups, we find very little formal teaching and training. These groups mainly rely for instilling needed dispositions into the young upon the same sort of association which keeps the adults loyal to their group。

  特别说明:由于各方面情况的不断调整与变化,新浪网所提供的所有考试信息仅供参考,敬请考生以权威部门公布的正式信息为准。

(编辑: editor)

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